Things to Know About Aircraft Fasteners and Other Hardware Supplies

Airplane manufacturing requires quality workmanship, the right application of procedures, and the use of the right materials. Even the smallest resource must be given enough focus. Aircraft hardware is the term used to describe different forms of fasteners and other small items in building an aircraft. There can be thousands of aircraft hardware in a single airplane. These pieces have different functions and applications. Knowing this, it is crucial to choose which items go for which parts of the plane.

Aircraft fasteners

Fastening systems often come with installation tools and most of them are automated to save costs. Since safety and durability are major concerns in this type of structure, manufacturers give focus on fatigue strength. This is why they use aircraft fasteners with quality standards such as AN (Army Navy), MS (Military Standard), and NAS (National Aerospace Standard). These indicate tolerance, dimensions, and finish; perfect for works requiring high quality hardware. Heavy-duty fasteners are those made from quality materials such as alloy 600 and titanium. Most manufacturers use titanium because of their light weight.

Sealed fasteners are useful in the wing fuel tanks. Panel fasteners, together with nuts and nut plates are common in the interior part of the aircraft. Floating nut plates are often fastened to the fuselage for unpressurized aircraft. For fastening interior panels, manufacturers commonly use lockbolts and collars. This is because these hardware items can spread the load across a bigger area, large heads, and equally large flanges on the collars. Quick release fasteners are also important in the interior of the aircraft, as they help remove panels for easier access.

Stainless steel clamps are also important. The worm-screw clamp, for instance, are useful in the fuel, oil, air, and coolant lines. These tools provide uniform clamping pressure without causing the hose to distort. Self-locking nuts obviously do not require a locking device. The use of insert is the most common locking method. Locknuts are efficient in areas that are prone to high temperature and vibration.

Bolts are sturdy aircraft hardware materials. When strength is not a requirement on a certain part of the structure, screws can do the job. Pins help secure two objects together. They are inserted on the holes made on the surface of the objects. They also come in straight, tapered, rolled, or grooved types. Most of them provide perfect alignment, holding parts in absolute connection to one another. Even constant motion will not result to slippage.

Aircraft General Tools

Bearings are forms of hardware any airplane will never do without. Rod end, roller, and needle roller bearings are some of the common types. They are useful in constructing hydraulic actuators, landing gears, wheels, flight controls, aerospace fans, and door mechanisms.

Other important general tools include gaskets and seals. They seal surfaces to prevent too much friction and protect them for extreme temperature.

These are only some of the aircraft hardware supplies that make up an entire airplane. When you are in this type of business, you have no choice but to familiarize yourself with these things to achieve the best quality planes.

Make It Start with a Door Switch – Dishwasher Repair

You wouldn’t even know your dishwasher had one until it isn’t working. These little switches are tucked inside the control panel of your dishwasher and most times are a part of the door latch. The door latch pulls the door securely to the main body of your dishwasher and prevents water from leaking during a cycle. If your dishwasher doesn’t start, it could be due to a faulty door switch.

How the door switch works

When the dishwasher door is open, the switch is off. Inside your dishwasher tub will be a metal or plastic prong. Close and latch the door. The prong will depress the door switch completely and the circuit will close allowing the dishwasher to start. Check the prong to make sure it’s not loose or bent and it’s properly activating the door switch.

It is important to disconnect the dishwasher from its power source before attempting any repair. You can unplug the dishwasher from the outlet, remove the fuse from your fuse box, or flick the breaker switch on your circuit panel. This will prevent you from getting an electric shock.

What a door switch looks like and where it’s located

Typically a dishwasher door switch is an inch long. It can be black or red and has metal prongs called terminals protruding from the body. Some door switches have two terminals and some have three.

The terminals can be a common terminal (COM), normally closed terminal (NC) or a normally open terminal (NO). Switches with only two terminals will either have a COM and a NO, or a COM and an NC. Door switches with three terminals have COM, NC, and a NO.

Your dishwasher’s door switch will be behind the control panel on the front of the unit. It may be necessary to remove the inner panel of the door first. You can do this by removing a few screws. The screws at the bottom of the door are for the hinges. You do not need to remove the whole door for this repair.

Once the inner panel is removed you may find another smaller panel covering the back of the control panel held in place with screws or clips. By removing this panel you will gain access to the latch assembly housing the door switch.

How to remove the switch

Carefully use needle nose pliers to pull the wires leading from the harness off the terminals. For door switches that have a locking clip, depress the lever as you gently pull the harness away from the terminal.

Take your time while removing switches that are a part of the latch assembly or that have a bracket. If you rush and break the switch’s housing you will end up having to replace more parts.

How to test your door switch

Use an ohmmeter to test the switch for continuity. This test is for door switches with three terminals.

Set your ohmmeter to measure resistance at a scale of Rx1.
Touch the metal tips of the test leads together and zero your ohmmeter by adjusting the thumbwheel in the front of the meter until the needles reads “0″ on the scale.
Touch one meter lead to the COM terminal and the other lead to the NO terminal. Do not push in on the actuator.
Your meter should give a reading of infinity, meaning the circuit is open, and there is no continuity.
Without moving the meter’s leads, press down on the actuator until you hear a ‘click’.
With the ‘click’ of the actuator, the meter should produce a resistance reading of zero ohms. This means the circuit is closed and continuity is present. (You will only hear this click with a door switch with three terminals.)
Keep the meter lead that is touching the COM terminal in place, but move the other meter lead from the NO terminal to the NC terminal.
When the actuator is released, you should receive a resistance reading of zero ohms.
Now set your ohmmeter to its highest resistance scale and touch one meter lead to the NO terminal and the other meter lead to the NC terminal.
The resistance reading between these two leads should be infinite.
Finally take a resistance reading from both the NC terminal and the NO terminal to any metal mounting hardware that is a part of the switch assembly. You should receive a normal reading of infinity.

Any readings that differ from the tests above are signs of a defective door switch that will need to be replaced.

Replace the old switch with a new one, using the same process as explained above. Reassemble the inner door panel and reconnect your dishwasher to its power supply. Don’t forget to replace your fuse or turn the breaker switch back on. Run your dishwasher through a cycle to make sure it’s working properly.

How an Automated Lambo Door Kit Works

Lots of people are converting the doors on their cars or trucks to a style similar to those found on a Lamborghini. They like the way the Lamborghini doors open and they are able to lift them up in the air like a scissor hinge, also sometimes referred to as gullwing doors. However, these lambo hinges are commonly referred to in the industry as a Lambo Hinge Kits.

Most lambo hinge kits are manually operated, meaning that to operate the door you will need to pull the door handle yourself, pulling towards you and then lifting the door up yourself. The door does open easily if the hinges are installed properly because there are gas assisted struts installed with the lambo kit that will assist in the raising and lowering of the doors.

However, some people want a fully automated Lambo Kit, whereas you are able to just push a button and have your doors automatically open and raise or lower all by themselves.

Usually it takes a custom shop or restoration shop to do this type of installation because it sometimes requires welding. However, if you want your lambo doors to be automatic, then this is what you will most likely need to get the job done:

Two Linear Actuators – These are the motors that will raise and lower your door.
Shaved Door Handle Kit – This is the device that will operate your handles for you.
Door Poppers – These are spring loaded devices that will push your door out from the door jam once opened.
Keyless Entry System – This must have a minimum of 6 channels available.
Miscellaneous brackets and hardware.

Once installed the automated lambo door kit should work like this:

Push a programmed button on your remote that activates the shaved door handle kit, thus releasing the door from the latch. Then the door popper pushes the door out of the jam. Then, pushing another button will activate the linear actuator and raise the door for you.

If the door is now up, you can push a button on the remote and fully lower the door. You can also mount rocker switches inside of the vehicle so (once inside) you do not have to use your remote buttons to lift or lower the doors.

The only manual part in this operation is that you will need to push or pull the doors back into the closed and latched position. There are no automated lambo door kits available on the market as of today that will reach out and pull the door in for you.

Many companies sell parts separately, but you will find a much better deal on the internet if you can just buy the automated lambo kits in a package. Buying a conversion package will no doubt save you money, as well as saving you from a headache in trying to locate all of these parts yourself.

Choosing New Door Locks For Your Home

From time to time, most homeowners will occasionally have to replace the entry door locks on their home. If you are currently in the market for new doors locks, there are a number of considerations to take into account before you make your purchase. In this article, we’ll review some of the important features of home entry locks on the market today, so you can make an educated decision about what product is right for your home.

Today’s door locks come in an array of colors and finishes to choose from, including finishes like Bright Brass, Antique Brass, Satin Nickel, Oil Rubbed Bronze, and more. Many homeowners will choose a color or finish based on the finishes of other metal fixtures throughout their homes such as lights, faucets, hinges, etc. Doing so can help maintain a consistent look throughout your home. However, the other important consideration when it comes to finish is the longevity. An inexpensive lock with a cheap finish will probably carry a one year warranty. As locksets go up in price, you will also notice that the years of warranty generally increase as well. The length of warranty you need may also depend on your geographic location. If you live near the ocean in a salty environment, you should look for a lock with a lifetime finish. Another consideration is whether your door handle is exposed to sunlight. If so, UV rays may damage or fade a cheap finish very quickly.

When it comes to buying door locks, security is of course, of utmost importance. Today, the top of the line in security are bump proof locks. Lock bumping is a method of forced entry into a home that is gaining in popularity among thieves because it’s so easy and fast, and because it leaves no signs of forced entry. Today’s bump proof locks may feature special key cylinders with pins that are impossible to pick and resistant to bumping. However, for the best protection, you should look for locks that have no exterior keyway at all. These locks typically feature a keypad on the outside so the homeowner can input a custom combination to open the door.

From a convenience standpoint, having a keypad door lock can be really nice, especially for families with pets and young children, or busy professionals who may not have time to mess around with keys. Another convenient type of door lock is the remote control actuated lockset. Much like a car remote, you carry a small remote on your keychain, then simply point it at your door and press a button to lock or unlock the door. These uses for a remote control lock are numerous. Handicapped persons can unlock their front door from inside the home without getting out of their chair. You can give extra remotes to service personnel, nannies, or house cleaners. Then each service person can get in your home as needed, but they will not have the ability to take a key to a hardware store and make a copy. When the service contract is up, they simply turn the remote back in to you.

These are just a few of many issues to consider when you get ready to buy new locks for your home. If you’re still unsure what units might be right for you, consult the personnel at your hardware store, or contact an online or catalog retailer who offers a special selection of home security products. A knowledgeable sales representative will be able to assist you in making the right decision. Remember, home entry locks are a big investment, so take your time and shop carefully. Not only do you want to get the most for your money, and that you’re providing the best possible security for yourself and your family.

How to Refurbish a Garage Door

Refurbishing or repairing a garage door can save a good chunk of money in lieu of replacing the door. You will have to take a good hard look at the door itself to decide whether rebuilding is a good bet. Almost every part of a garage door and track system is available for replacement parts.

The door itself may allow you to replace a damaged panel or two but after that it may just be cheaper to replace the entire door. You need to take a good inventory of what needs to be replaced, how much the parts will cost and how much labor it will take to do the work. Even though as a DIY’er the labor is free, it still takes up valuable nap time. Carefully check the door joints to see if they are still good and tight Is the door racked in any way? Any splintering or cracking of stiles and rails? Is the glass all good? If all these parts look good, let’s take a look at the hardware. Are the lift springs, pulleys and cables still OK? How worn are the hinges between the door panels? Are the door floor sensors still in good condition? If the door is more than 15 year sold, the hinges need replacement at the very least. If the door gets a lot use, even sooner.

Replacing the hinges is quite straight forward. Close the door and place a vise-grip type clamp in the track on both sides at the top of the door in the track. If you have an electric door opener, pull the plug. You do not want the door actuated when you have the hinges apart. Hinges are stamped with a number such as 1,2 or 3. Top and bottom brackets are unique and can be easily matched by eye. Rollers come in both steel and Nylon materials but I prefer the steel for longevity. Nylon is a little quieter but not silent. In either case you choose, apply roller lube as you replace them. The hinges do wear out in that the roller shaft holes become elongated and allow the roller shafts to wiggle in the track. Besides being noisy they allow the door to rumble and shake.

One by one replace the hinges. Do not remove more than one at a time. Replaced in this way, you can get the hinge back exactly where the old one came out. Tighten each hinge as you proceed.

Once all the hinges are replaced, check the upper and lower roller brackets as well. The top roller mounts again are an easy replacement. The bottom brackets however are a much different story. CAUTION: Do not un-bolt or release the bottom brackets with the lift springs in place. The tension in the lift springs when released can snap back and cause serious injury or worse. People have lost fingers having their hands trapped in a runaway spring. The bottom brackets should only be removed after releasing the springs. The bottom rollers can be replaced with the door is in the full open position and there is no tension on the lifting springs. (Roller drum lifts are much different and are not discussed here).

After replacing the hinges and rollers you will see a noticeable difference in lifting the door and the amount of less noise the rollers make. You should also consider replacing the lifting springs and pulleys as your budget allows. If the door is old enough for new hinges and rollers it also needs new bottom weather striping and side seals as well. A new coat of paint and your good to go.

What Does Aircraft Hardware Comprise of?

Fastening systems are important in aircraft construction because of the shear number of fasteners used. Aerospace fasteners and fastener tooling or fastener installation tools are critical in the construction process and are often automated for cost-saving.

Fatigue strength is important for safety and durability, particularly in primary structures and assemblies. AN, MS and NAS are all quality standards indicative of strength, but also tolerance, dimensions, and finish. Blind structural fasteners, while historically lacking in strength, are being improved because they offer the advantage that they need access from one side only.

Sealed fasteners that provide a sealed joint are used in wing fuel tanks for example. Composite fasteners are also being developed for the kind of advanced materials that are introduced for applications in an industry at the cutting edge. High strength fasteners for structures are frequently distinguished by the material they are made from, for example, alloy 600 or titanium fasteners. Titanium has the added advantage for aircraft fasteners, that it is light.

Stainless steel clamps have aircraft applications such as worm-screw clamps for use on fuel, oil, air and coolant lines. The worm drive provides uniform clamping pressure without distorting the hose.

Nuts and nut plates and panel fasteners are commonplace in the aircraft interiors industry. Floating nut plates can also be used to fasten to the fuselage of an unpressurised aircraft. Lockbolts and collars are a common method of fastening interior panels because they spread the load across a greater area, large heads and equally large flanges on the collars.

Self-locking nuts do not need a locking device. The most common method of locking comes from the use of inserts. Locknuts are used in high temperature environments or when subject to vibration.

Bolts are used for strength, but if strength is not a requirement, screws are fine.

Pins are used to secure two objects together. Holes are bored in one or both of the objects and the pins inserted. Pins can be straight, tapered, rolled or grooved and provide perfect alignment, holding parts in
absolute relation to one another. They also prevent slippage due to high motion.

Quick release fasteners are another type of fastener used in aircraft interiors, ie removing panels for easy access.

Aerospace hardware can include aircraft tooling generally, not just fastener installation tools.

Aerospace bearings.

Bearings are ubiquitous in aircraft, hydraulic actuators (rod end bearings), landing gear and wheels, flight controls (roller bearings), slats, flaps and flight control surfaces (needle roller bearings), joints, hatch and door mechanisms and aerospace fans.

Hydraulic fittings join titanium tube, stainless steel tube or braided steel hose and are usually subject to 3000 psi. or more.

Aerospace gaskets and seals.

Carbon-faced seals are mechanical face seals that mate up to the rotating mating ring, bearing, or shaft. The seal face in the stationary portion provides the low friction wear element that rides on the harder wear
resistant mating surface. Both the seal face and mating surfaces are typically lapped flat, providing a virtually leak tight seal.

Gaskets too have many varied functions among which is metal O-rings, made from a corrosion and heat resistant steel tubing which form tubular sealing rings. They are primarily for sealing fluid systems at
temperatures where the operating conditions are too severe for conventional elastomeric O-ring seals.
AS9100 hydraulic packings are seals for hydraulic cylinders in aerospace use, where durability is a prime consideration. Teflon O-rings cannot be melted and teflon is inert, with a very low coefficient of friction.

By using the latest inventory management systems and demand modelling software, companies in the aerospace hardware sector usually operate on a worldwide scale processing a huge number of orders daily.

Finish the Job With Finish Hardware

Doors in commercial buildings require a minimum of finish hardware, including hinges, flush bolts and pivots. Doors can also be outfitted with a variety of decorative hardware, including kick plates and door pulls. Which hardware is installed is determined by door use, architectural style and safety concerns.

A hinge may just seem like a hinge, but each hinge is designed for use in a particular situation. For example, a basic five-knuckle plain bearing full mortise hinge is designed for use on a standard weight door that gets little use. It also cannot be used with a door closer. On the other hand, a three-knuckle spring hinge can be used with a door closer. When purchasing hinges, tell your supplier the weight of the door, the expected traffic level and the details of any other devices that will be installed on the door. This way you can get the correct hinge for the job and not find the door literally coming unhinged in the future.

Doors can also be fitted with pivot sets. These are typically floor-mounted, although some are jam-mounted. Pocket pivots are also available. These allow the door to open flush to the corridor and are commonly found in hospitals or other settings where the door needs to be completely out of the way when open. Just like hinges, pivot sets need to be selected based on the weight and expected usage of the door. Pivots are available for doors from 200 to 500 pounds. Some pocket pivots are also rated for use on fire doors.

Flush bolts and strikes are designed to work either on metal or wood doors. Options for this hardware include manual flush bolts, automatic flush bolts, constant latching flush bolts, auxiliary fire latches and dust proof strikes. The best flush bolts share some common features: meet ANSI A156.3 Type 25 or Type 27, are non-handed, offer optional dust proof strikes, and have low actuation forces. You’ll need to know how the door frame is prepared when ordering flush bolts.

Put the finishing touches on a door with decorative, yet functional hardware. Kick plates and push plates protect the door from damage. Pulls can be coordinated with the decor of the building. These items are available in a variety of finishes. Floor stops, wall stops and door silencers all improve the function of the door. Even these hardworking items are available in design styles to complement the building design or to blend unobtrusively into the background.

Finish hardware should be chosen carefully to ensure a door works properly and safely for many years. Although home supply stores may carry some basic hardware, it’s best to rely on an experienced commercial hardware supplier to get the proper hardware for each installation.